Raipur district is important in historical and archeological point of view. This district was once part of southern Kosal and considered to be under Mourya Kingdom. Raipur city had been the capital of the Haihaya Dynasty Kalchuri kings, controlling the traditional forts of the Chhattisgarh for a long time. The town of Raipur has been in existence since the 9th century; the old site and ruins of the fort can be seen in the southern part of the city. Satawahana kings ruled this part till the 2nd–3rd century.
Raipur District is situated in the fertile plains of Chhattisgarh Region. This District is situated between 22o 33' N to 21o14'N Latitude and 82o 6' to 81o38'E Longtitude. The District is surrounded by District Bilaspur in North, District Bastar and part of Orissa state in South, District Raigarh and part of Orissa state in East and district Durg in West. The district occupies the south eastern part of the upper Mahanadi valley and the bordering hills in the south and the east. Thus, the district is divided into two major physical divisions, Viz., the Chattisgarh plain and the Hilly Areas.
Mahanadi is the principal river of this district. Its tributaries being Sendur, Pairy, Sondur, Joan, Kharun and Shivnath. The fertility of lands of Raipur district can be attributed to the presence of these rivers. Mahanadi originating in the hills of Sihava flows in the direction of East into the Bay of Bengal. Mahanadi crosses the district diagonally from its south western corner to Northern boundaries. The area to the west of the river comprising the North Eastern part of Dhamtari (now separated from the Raipur District), the whole of Raipur, Rajim Tehsil and the western part of Baloda Bazar Tehsil is a part of the open Chhattisgarh plain, gently sloping, thickly populated and closely cultivated and almost devoid of forests. The plain also extends in a belt of about 13 to 15 kilometers east of Mahanadi, except between Sirpur and Kasdol where the hills are very closed. The Southern part of Mahanadi plain is about 305 metres above the M.S.L. , whereas the northern part is about 244 metres above the M.S.L.